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Geography and climate | nature | Flora and fauna

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Espesially preserved territories.

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Today especially protected areas, natural areas in Kamchatskaya oblast occupy more than 27% of its total area.
There are 2 state preserves - Kronotsky and Komandorsky, 5 natural parks - Nalychevo, Uzhno-Kamchatsky, Bystrinsky, Kluchevsky, Golubyje ozera (Blue Lakes), 1 state preserve of federal importance, 23 preserves local importance, which include for the most part nesting areas of waterfowls, 105 nature sites, 2 sanatoria and resort areas, prohibited areas down the spawning rivers, genetic reserves, protected columbine areas here.
There are 66 especially protected natural areas including Komandorsky state biosphere preserve, 7 reserves of federal importance and 58 nature sites within Korayksky autonomous region.



Komandorsky state biosphere preserve

Kronotsky state biosphere preserve

The Valley of Geysers

Zoological reserve "Nalychevskaya tundra"

Khopdutkinskie hot springs

Khlamovitsky zoological reserve

Korjaksky state biosphere preserve

Yjznho-Kamchatsky presreve

Zoological reserve "hree volcanoes"

Zoological reserve "South western tundrovy"

Forest preserves

Zoological reserve "Timonovsky"

volcano Uzon caldera

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Komandorsky state biosphere preserve   

Found within Aleutsky national region including Bering's island, Medny island, Arii Kamen island, Toporkov island and surrounding them 30 miles defined area of water.
Total area of the preserve - 1484 sq. km. Within its bounds there is a zone of economic working, where traditional and modern ways of nature management are put into practice.
There are 5 protected nature areas of the peninsula with common name "Kamchatka's volcanoes" included into the World Culture and Nature Heritage List.
They are: Kronotsky state biosphere preserve, Uzhno-Kamchatsky state Federal Reserve and regional nature parks "Nalychevo", "Uzhno-Kamchatsky", "Bystrinsky".
In Bystrinsky park Kamchatka's natives' (Koryaks, Itelmens, Evens) traditional nature management is maintained; national craft and reindeer-breeding are developing.

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Kronotsky State Biosphere Preserve  

Total area - 1007,1 thousand hectare, one of the largest preserve in Russia.
Situated in Elizovski region.
In the North its border line is along volcano Kizimen-the river Maly Chazhma line, in the West it is contiguous with Valaginsky mountain ridge, volcanoes Unana and Taunshits, in the South its border line is from the Semyachinski estuary's mouth to the river Stary Smyachik's mouth.
The preserve includes 3 miles defined area of water of the Pacific Ocean of total area 135 thousand hectare.

Protected objects
superior plants- 600 species,
animals- 37 species
birds - 212 species,
the Valley of Geysers
volcano Uzon's caldera
Kronotskoye lake
9 active volcanoes
10 groups of thermal springs
the only in the world grove of graceful fir.

Brown bear is considered the most spread animal in the preserve.
Earlier, when the route to the Valley of Geysers was through the preserve, tourists could see 12-14 at the same time on the path a day.
Stone Birch taiga of Cazhminski forestry is the best sable grounds of the preserve.
Original reason to found the preserve was not the concentration of natural unique object here but this little predatory animal.
Here there are foxes-pickleworms with wonderful bright fluffy fur.
There are reindeers, wolves, hares in the preserve
On the lakesides hooping swan hibernate.
Colonial species of birds nest on the rocks of the lakesides.
The most mysterious plant of the preserve is graceful furScientists are interested for a long time, why this species of conifers is in the only place all over the world.

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The Valley of Geysers   

One of the greatest discoveries of the XXth century! Unique and inimitable nature of the Valley of Geysers attracts tourists from all corners of the world.
It takes just an hour to get to The Valley of Geysers from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski by helicopter.
Beneath hills mounds, silver river threads, desert mountain dales are passing in the curly green.
As on the map the panorama from the Pacific Ocean with white waves lace to lifeless, bristlingmenacing pointed cogs of mountains.
The helicopter flies round volcanoes Karymsky and Malyl Semyachik.
The valley of the river Shumnaya meets tourists with black steep rocks , bands of waterfalls.
And canyon itself is yellow outcrops of slopes/mountainsides, meandering river on the bottom - the river Geysernaya - steamy grounds, white splashes of streams.
Geysers stretch out almost for 5 km along current/ stream of the river Geysernaya, beginning from firstling and to upper geysers on the waterfall Troynoy/Triple.
Geysers take up a special position among hot springs.
Geysers take up a special position among hot springs
This phenomenon is both beautiful and rare.
Large geysers are known only in Iceland, Yellowstone park in the USA, in New Zeland.
Not big and not numerous geysers are in Kalifornia, Japan and in Tibet
But The Valley of Gaysers has no equal in beauty and majesty of the landshaft and in number of gathered together flowing springs on the limited territory. Variety of forms and colors of the Valley of Geysers are created not only with quaint fantastical rocks and precipices, flora, streams of the water and fountain, waterfalls, geyserite cones, but also with thermophile algae and bacteria , developing everywhere, where at least one water jet appears. The difficulty to reach the Valley of Geysers (it is hidden in one of deep canyon of Kronotski State Biosphere Preserve)helped to retain its primeval state. Amazing landscapes and great opportunities to make photos: geysers and pulsatory springs, mud cauldrons, slopes covered with sediments of variegated geyserite and thermophile algae, dry and filled with sulphurous compounds reservoirs. All geysers are not the same, they do not resemble to each other. The geyser Troynoy is notable with its grayish brown colour of geyserite and 3 griffins. The geyser Sakxarni is like large lily flower.The geyser Bolshoy has the highest fountain, the geyser Maly is perhaps the most powerful in the Valley of Geysers in number of water pouring out a day. The geyser Velikan strikes with its mightiness. Combination of many natural conditions: forms and depths of subterranean canals, pressure, confluent of cold water, overheat steam is necessary for hot spring to gush. Geysers' activity depends mainly on the quantity of superficial water , for example atmospheric precipitates, pouring into bosom. Separating from abyssal centre steam and gas heat them. When boiling water streams through fissures rush into the surface like fountains.

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Koryakski State Nature Preserve.  
Founded within Koryakski Autonomous region. It consists of 3 separated areas: Parapolski dale, Govena's cape, Lavrov's bay. Total area of the preserve - 327,2 thousand hectare. Main function - preservation of natural ecosystems: bioresources of water objects, ecological monitoring of coast, preservation of reindeer pastures in the South of Parapolski dale, and with that traditional way of life of Northern nations. Scientific-research work, ecological examination, ecological instruction.
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Uzhno-Kamchatski Reserve.  
The reserve of republican importance from 1996 included into the World Heritage List of UNESCO, situated into southern part of the peninsula. Northern border line is from the river Pervaya's mouth up-stream to the first large tributary and then along watershed to the place where the river Shumnaya flows into the river Ozernaya, along the river Ozernaya to the watershed of the river Levy Kayuk, then along the watershed of the river Ozernaya's tributaries and the rivers flowing into the lake Kurilskoye in the north, to upper reaches of the river Ilyinskaya and to the coast of the Pacific Ocean. South-east 3 mile area - along the coast of the Pacific Ocean to the river Ilyinskaya's mouth to the cope Lopatka. South-west area - from the cope Lopatka covers 3 mile area to the cope Kambalny, from there 1 mile area to the mouth of the river Pervaya. The reserve includes the island Utashud as the place of sea-otter concentration. The lake Kurilskoye is the unique nature memorial. 2 volcanic cones (Kambalny and Ilyinsky) set off the lake. Queer copes and picturesque islands make it inimitable. Total area of the lake's mirror - 77,1 sq.km, its depth reaches 300 m . Today the lake Kurilskoye is one of the largest salmon spawning places in Kamchatka. In definite years fish quantity in this lake in spawning was 6 mln. Abundance of fish makes favourable conditions for brown bear to come on the lakeside. There is an observation tower from what tourists could observe wonderful bear's fishing. Flight by helicopter takes 1hour and 20 minutes. Main function of the reserve is to protect valuable fur-bearing animals and other food animals, study population of see-otter. Total area- 2250 sq. km.

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Khodutkinskiye hot springs.  
In the South of Kamchatka, at the bottom of volcanoes Khodutka and Priyomysh one of the most astonishing places of the peninsula - Khodutkinski hot springs is situated. Situated in the crater of volcanic explosion, it is one of the largest springs in Kamchatka. Combination of picturesque landscapes, rich flora and fauna, mild microclimate and natural Basin of the river Goryachaya with water of any temperature good for swimming makes this place very attractive to have a rest here in winter or summer.

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Khlamovitski zoological reserve.  
Situated in Elizovski region, in the river Avacha's delta, on the right bank of the river Khlamovitka. Function - protection of musquash, water birds, among which the largest in Russia colonies of lacustrine gull, alutian tern, overflight goose birds. Total area - about 9 sq. km.

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"Zoological reserve "Nalychevskaya tundra".  
Situated in Milkovski region on the left bank of the river Kamchatka,near village Sharoma. Border lines - from the river Kamchatka upper to along the left bank of the river Kensol to foothills along the foothills to the river Kuvagdych down to its right bank to the river Kamchatka and on the left bank of the river Kamchatka. Function - protection of rare water birds such as hooping swan, wild duck and their places for hibernation. Total area - 150 sq. km.

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Zoological reserve "Timonovski".  
Situated in Elizovski region, 90 km from town Elizovo (flight by helicopter takes 25-30 minutes). Border lines: western - from the left tributary of the river Stenovaya upper to its river head to Valaginski mountain ridge; northern - along Valaginski mountain ridge to the river head of the river Levaya Avacha; eastern - from the river head of the river Levaya Avacha along divide ranges between the rivers Levaya Avacha and Srednaya Avacha to the mountain Dlinnaya through the mouth of the river Tuamok to the mouth of the first left tributary of the river Stenovaya. Healing power of Timonovskiye hot springs attract here tourists all the year round. Recommendation to use water are various: injury of musculoskeletal system, respiratory apparatus diseases, metabolic disease, gynaecological disorders, affection of peripheral nervous system, digestive apparatus diseases, skin diseases. Waters can be recommended both for common baths and for internal use. Here one can take bath in natural springs near the river or bath into specially appointed thermal baths at home and in pool in the open air. For active rest pedestrian walks to waterfalls, places of springs' outcrop are organized. The reserve's function - conservation of separate landscapes of mountain areas and protection of fauna. Total area - 720 sq. km.

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Zoological reserve " 3 volcanoes".  
Situated in Elizovski region. Border lines: in the north - along the pass Pinachevski, then to the South-East along the upper boundary of stone-birch forests of the western slopes of the mountain Aag, hills Koraykskaya and Avachinskaya, the mountain Monakh, then along the slopes of the hill Kozelskaya to the crest of the river Mytnaya; its eastern borderline is along the easternslopes of the hills Avachinskaya, Koraykskaya, the mountain Aag to the pass Pinachevski. Function - protection of snow sheep, black-cap marmot, gopher ground squirrel. Total area - 534 sq. km.

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Zoological reserve "South-West of tundra".  
Situated in Ust-Bolsheretski region. Border lines: from the mouth of the river Vukuyu (right tributary of the river Golygina) upper to the foothills to the North to the junction of the rivers Opala and Savan; then along the channel to the lakes up to 16 km. Then to the lake Khetits including it, then through the western bank of the lake Serdechnoye to the river Golygina, upper to the river to the mouth of the river Vukuyu. This reserve represents protected water- marsh hunting-sea tundras with rich ornithofauna in flights and nesting. Here is nesting colony of goose-, which is taken under ornithologists' control. In the foothills area there is tourists' path, which is recreation object. The reserve is protected by chasseur service of forest control. Total area - 123 sq. km.

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Forest reserve.  
26 objects of the state forest fund, which are liable to special protection, situated throughout whole Kamchatka: in the valley of the river Kamchatka, at the foothills of Kozyrevski mountain ridge, in the country between the river Malaya Romanovka and the river Topolovaya, in the upper course of the river Bolshaya Kamitina,in the middle stream of the river Kirganik, round 5th lake Kharchinskoye, on the slopes of volcano Shiveluch, and in the other places. Sometimes they are separate groves and tracts consisting of such wood species as Ayanskaya spruce, Kurilski larch, gracious fir. Total area of the objects - 100 sq. km. Diversity of landscapes and originality of wood species structure are wounderful objects for tourism.

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Caldera of volcano Uzon.  
The word "caldera" is of Spanish origin, means copper. It is an original hollow, depression formed on the place of blasted volcano Uzon with sides - residuary mountainous ranges residuary of crater sides. Caldera dimensions are large 9x12 km. Total area - 150 sq. km. Its eastern part is hilly, and western part is waterlogged. Early in the morning, when air is still fresh, on height of mountains surroundig caldera in the West and North, whose acme is peak Barani, one sees wonderful panorama of yellow fumarole fields with hunreds vapor trails above them, with green groves, brownish tundras, bluish lakes. Kamchatka indigenes called this cregion "steamy lands". Down, all over the place astonishing sounds trap you - everything flounders, smacks, whistles, puffs, pants. It seems that land power escapes itself away outwards from your underfoot. Hydrothermal activity is concentrated in the South-West part of caldera, on 5 thermal fields. It is manifested with many boiling and seething craters, numerous mud coppers and little volcanoes, steamy or heated grounds with outlet of steam and hot water. There are more 100 springs and more 500 separate hydrothermal manifestations of nearly all water kinds encountered in Kamchatka. Among caldera lakes are the lake Centralnoye -the largest but shallow and cold lake, the lake Fumarolnoye -warm and non-freezing, the lake Bannoye, where even in winter temperature is 40 C and whose bottom is false, it is a crust of molten native sulfur in depth, the lake Utinoye - cold lake with unique sulfur beach. Earth heat attracts animals and birds.

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