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Kamchatka nature, Volcanoes.
|Geysers and Hot springs
Nature, places of interest
There are 28 active volcanoes and about 160 extinct on Kamchatka peninsula.
Hot springs and geysers are natural satellites of volcanic activity.
And this volcanic activity is an attribute of a geological youth of Kamchatka.
Volcanoes are located as two belts of meridional directions in east and southeast parts of peninsula.
The majority of active and extinct volcanoes are located along east coast from cape Lopatka up to Shiveluch volcano.
The second belt goes across Central range.
Except active Ichinsky volcano, all volcanoes of the Central range belt are considered to be extinct.
Volcanoes are connected to deep breaks of an earth's crust.
Often several volcanoes can be part of one break.
Usually volcanoes located close to each other and form groups, for example such as Klyuchevskaya, the group of volcanoes in a northeast lowland of Kamchatka peninsula.
This group includes such volcanoes as Klyuchevskoy, Tolbachinsky, and Bezymyanny.
These are the most active volcanoes.
Volcano of Somme - Vesuvius type
The active cone is located in caldera by diameter of 1149 ft and 656 ft depth.
The general height of a volcano now is 9025 ft.
During eruption in 1991 the crater was filled by lava, which has left for a cone and was distributed on the slopes.
Last eruptions were observed in 1938, 1945 and 1991.
On the geographical and geologic evidence the volcano has several abyssal centers and the uppermost, actively living, is on depth of 0.9 - 1.2 miles.
Mountain-skiing tours are carried out from the middle of November till May inclusive.
On a channel of Dry Small River tourists can be delivered on a motor vehicle (distance of 9.3 - 12.4 miles) Further up to a tourist shelter we use snowmobiles.
Then from a shelter the group goes up on a southwest slope Somme to a cone (5-6 hours), and from a cone on the western slope it`ll take 2-3 hours to get to the top.
Skiing down can be done from northern side of a cone up to Somme, then across Somme
to the pass between Avachinsky and Koryak volcanoes (the western direction) and from pass up to a shelter.
A steepness of a cone slope is 25-30 degrees, a bias up to pass is 30-35 degree (1640 ft), and then 15-20 degrees to a shelter.
Average temperature from November till February is up to
- 15-20 C.
Best time for this kind of ski tour is - from March till June.
New option is to use ratruck (snowcat) to get to the Avacha cone.
Using this snowcat you`ll get the option to ski down the slope at list 5 times a day.
It is much more easier and it saves a lot of travelers` time.
Our company can provide you with this service as well.
Is in 15.5 - 18.6 miles to the south of the city of Petropavlovsk, on opposite coast of Avachinskaya bay.
We use a motor vehicle to get to the beginning of a route. It takes about 2-2.5 hours.
During the winter period (November - February) and spring (March - May) ski route begins right from the road.
At the summer period the route begins 3280-4265 ft from the road.
The ascending to the volcano top can be done on the southwest slope (hiking time 6-7 hours).
Skilled mountain skiers can make their way down the slope following the ascending direction and on a southern slope on Viljuchinsky pass.
Skiing down the southwest route the steepness is 30-35 degrees (1640-1968 ft) and 40-45 degrees (656-820 ft), 15-20 degrees in the bottom part (3280-4921 ft).
The temperature of the air in the winter (November - February) at the altitude of 3280 ft is up to -25С.
The most dangerous season (avalanches) considered to be May.
Best time to visit is from March till July inclusive.
Heli-ski is the option.
Is situated in 15.5 - 18.6 miles from Petropavlovsk.
To the volcano foot tourists can be delivered by a motor vehicle (1.5 hours), further - by snowmobile (1hour).
The route begins from Kazelsky stream. Further hiking can be done on a ridge to the direction of the central top.
The ascending takes 6-7 hours.
Average slope steepness is about 25-30 degrees.
Descending follows the same way as the ascending.
The temperature at 3280 ft, in January - February falls up to-15 С, in March - May from 0-10 С.
A route is not dangerous (avalanches).
The best time to visit is March - June.
In October - November descent from a topmost ridge on a southeast side is recommended.
Helicopter trips are available.
|Klyuchevskoy volcano (15583 ft.)
- One of the biggest volcanoes of the world.
The highest volcano of Asia and Europe.
The age of this volcano is about 7 thousand years.
Klyuchevskoy is a stratovolcano with the shape of even cone.
It is situated on Kamchatka river right shore.
The slopes of it are cracked, lavas' streams allover, the top is covered with ice.
Often eruptions occur not through the main crater but through lateral craters.
Till 1978 height of Klyuchevskoy volcano was 15583 ft.
After the eruption of 1978 the crater was completely filled with lava.
In the center of volcano the slag cone started to grow.
By 1990, the cone has blocked the edges of the basic hole and after it the height of volcano increased about 320-490 ft.
Those years volcano was constantly erupting and burning hot lava with the mud streams constantly flew down to the foot of the mountain.
Later, strongest eruptions of a topmost crater with lateral breakouts were observed 1978-1993.
Eruptions of Klyuchevskoy volcano proceed now too.
The sources of its power (abyssal centers) are multistage structures, located on different depth levels (form 30 to 80 miles).
The structure of eruption products is - alumina and magnesia basalts.
|Tolbachinskiy volcanic Massif.
This massif is formed with two volcanoes Sharp and Flat Tolbachik.
The base of this Massif - is buckler shape volcano of Middle- Early Pleistocene period.
Diameter of this volcano is 13.6 miles, and the height is 4921 ft.
Sharp and Flat Tolbachik were formed at the foot of that old Pleistocene period volcano.
These are two accrete stratovolcanoes with peculiar structure and different active eruption centers.
|The Flat Tolbachik Volcano.
Recently the vigorous activity of Flat Tolbachik volcano was shown as eruptions - in the central crater and sometimes by collateral eruptions as well.
Eruptions were observed 1970 and 1975.
At the bottom of a crater Hot lava lake was periodically observed.
To the south from Tolbachinsky massif there is big crack zone of slag cones, which lasts approximately for 24 miles from the central massif.
In 1975, Big Tolbachik eruption began in that zone, it proceeded about one and a half years.
It was one of the most interesting and most powerful basalt eruptions of 20th centuries.
During that eruption ash columns and clouds rose on 6.2 - 9.3 miles upward, and their loops depending on a direction of a wind were stretched on 310-620 miles.
Ashes fallout was observed not only on Kamchatka but also in adjoining regions.
Burning hot slag, volcanic bombs, and basalt fragments were thrown out.
For the two months of eruption six slag cones in height from 164-984 ft were formed on northern site.
Lava streams with the speed of 196 ft. flew for the 3.1 miles away.
Ash and slag 1.6 - 65 ft thick covered the area of 186 sq.miles.
On the southern break 820 ft slag cone formed in 1 year and 4 months, and the area of lava streams occupied about 24 square miles.
Later, in the central crater appeared a big hole on a place of that hole, the large crater 4921 ft in
diameter and with depth up to 1640 ft was formed.
The first years after eruption there was a lake of turquoise color with many fumaroles around
Now the volcano crates is quiet.
The active volcano Bezimyanniy can be refer to the same group; last catastrophic eruption of Bezimyanniy took place 30 of March, 1956.
About the same type is Shiveluch volcano (it is situated in the northern part of east volcanic belt).
There was a big explosion on this volcano in 1964.
The volume of erupted fragments was about 1.5 cubic kilometers.
Huge stones of 4 - 5 thousand lb. weight were thrown out on distance of 4.9 - 6.2 miles.
This volcano has the shape of even cone.
The height is 11338 ft. The top crater is corked by lava and fragmental debris.
There are lots of small side craters with going to the foot lava streams.
Last eruption took place in 1957.
The small amount of gases and ashes has been thrown out from the crack formed on a slope.
Little fumarole's activity can be seen there now too.
Two ancient volcanoes Aag and Arik are adjoin the Koryak volcano.
| Mutnovsko-Gorelovskaya group.
It is located in the territory of southern Kamchatka, in 43.4 miles from the city.
Here one can find a complex massif of Mutnovsky volcano, with the most powerful on Kamchatka and all over the world fumarole's fields.
The caldera of Goreliy volcano is located at the top of an ancient cone with the active stratovolcano on it.
On the map of that area we also can find destroyed Zhirovskoy volcano with thermal fields and intense ore outlets.
Uzon crater is an abundance of hot and warm, transparent and muddy, chloride and sulphurous lakes.
At the northeast part of the Uzon volcano, at the height of 2460 ft above sea level crater lake (maar type) "Dalnee" is located.
Lake coasts are steep and covered with alder and cedar thickets.
There is a small beautiful island - heart of Uzon, right in the middle of the Dalnee lake.
The water area of that lake is 80 hectares, and biggest depth is 65.6 - 82 ft.
Several streams flow into the lake, but the lake itself has no water exits.
The water in the lake is fresh, pure, transparent and cold.
From the end of November till May the lake is covered with ice.
|Small Semyachik volcano.
Is a 1.8 miles volcanic ridge with 3 craters on top.
In southern - crater (named after Troitskiy), on the depth of 557 ft. we can find an unusually colored acid lake.
The temperature of this opaque lake changes from +27 up to +42 C, and the mineralization level a corresponds to
a solution of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids of the average concentration.
The size of the lake is amazing: a width is about 0.3 mile, and depth - 459 ft.
There are some suppositions, that the acid lake appeared rather recently as a result of the eruption,
which have occurred imperceptibly for the people.
Today Maliy Semyachek is the one of Kamchatkas nature miracles,
and one who has managed to reach the bottom, is simply obliged to rise the edge of a crater.
The show, which opens to your eyes, is unforgettable: a 656 ft deep crater, smoking green lake, and violence of paints on internal walls.
In clear windy weather it is possible to go down the crater.
It is possible to stand on a flaky black beach, admiring emerald, poisonous surf and a tornado similar "Genie", rising above the surface of the lake.
But the coastal "breeze" causing cough, will force you to leave soon the dwelling-place of underground "spirits".
Rather low (4875 ft) and young (6100 years) volcano is the most active volcano of Kamchatka.
Only on XX century there were 23 eruptions, the last began in 1996, and gradually fading, proceeded more than two years.
The eruptions of Karymsky were accompanied with explosions, ashes kicks, and bombs from the central crater.
Usually, lavas of Karymsky are so malleable that fire streams not always rich the volcano foot.
During latest eruption of Karymsky, simultaneously began the underwater eruption in Karymskoe lake, which is 3.7 miles away from the volcano.
In those 18-20 hours that eruption last, more than 100 underwater explosions has taken place accompanying with waves "tsunami" in height up to 49 ft.
The lake was boiling: its temperature has sharply raised, and the maintenance of salts and acids has quickly reached such concentration
that all lake life including specially settled in Karymskoe lake by ichthyologists herd of "Kokan" fish (lake red salmon species) - was lost.
As a result of this eruption the lake Karymskoe from a ultrafresh water body has turned to the biggest natural tank of acid water in the world.
Dzenzur volcano is a destroyed covered with ice volcanic massif with the craters.
In the southeastern part of the volcano the fumarol boiler is located, it has the size of 16 * 65 ft filled with water from melted snow.
There are active boiling fumaroles on the coasts and at the bottom, due to which the temperature of water reaches
+ 85 + 90 С.
About 40% of the water is dredge.
Walls of the boiler type crater consist of combined multi-colored loams.
Ksudach volcano looks like the truncated cone with the 11 * 12.4 miles basis, with lava lakes calderas.
The height of the whole volcanic structure is 3280 ft above the sea level.
The ancient volcano was formed on the boundary of the early and middle Pleistocene and was 6561 ft high at that time.
Its activity some times renewed, and as a result volcanic cones and several calderas of different age were formed.
There are some mofettes with the temperature of + 80 +90 C and high consentration of carbonic acid on the "Soaring rock" and "Soaring ridge".
Thermal springs are located on the coasts of lakes Kljuchevskoe and Shtubelya.
Shtubel springs form the "Hot beach", the warmed coast (sand and pumice) of the lake, which is 656 ft long.
The temperature of water is 30-70 C.
On the surface of the lake one can find floating thermophilic algae colonies.
Bushes of elfin woods, meadows and the tundra, the slag slopes with vegetation, open extrusion with lakes: all this create a natural complex with the unique views and colors.
The river Talaya, flowing out of caldera, forms a waterfall.
Ksudach is one of the most exotic objects in Kamchatka - is declared to be a nature sanctuary of the geological- landscape character.
Volcno tours and information review prepared by, |
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