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Kamchatka, flora and fauna

Nihongo no Kamchatka
Kamchatka Russian version

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Kamchatka flora and fauna.

Animal kingdom.

Flora
Birds |Fish| Sealife

Kamchatka animal kingdom is close to that of taiga.
But Kamchatka is also home to unique sub-species and species of animals - Kamchatka sable, sea otter, reindeer, bighorn sheep, Kamchatka marmot, wood-grouse, gyrfalcon.
But on the whole the fauna of the peninsula is typical of island. There is no, for example, such animal of taiga as musk-deer and ground squirrel.
Of course, the peculiarities of Kamchatka animal kingdom are connected with its geographical situation, climate, unusual landscapes and the history of settling.
From the snowy mountain tops to the seacoast the territory of Kamchatka is settled rather tightly with various animals.
On the slopes of volcanoes one can meet bighorn sheep, numbering 10000 specimen.
In the lowlands black-headed marmots, tree-creepers, reindeer and arctic susliks are usual inhabitants.

Among the largest beasts of prey brownbear was and still is the most outstanding and famous representative.
In the Kronotsky Zapovednik (reserve) its aggregation numbers 300-400 bear per ha.
And the total population of these animals in Kamchatka numbers 20000.
Kamchatka brown bear is considered to be the largest representative of its species.
One can meet it on a seashore, in forest, in tundra and on a bank of a river. Sometimes it goes high in the mountains.
A bear eats fish, berries and various roots.
Sometimes it attacks wild and domestic animals.
This species of bear is rather apathetic and extremely incautious, but easily vulnerable, that is why the bear hunting was limited and licensed.

Wolf, fox and glutton are also beasts of prey.
But the number of their populations is not stable and depends first of all on the availability of food: fish, hares, mice, and for a wolf - wild and domestic deer.
Usually wolf is rarely seen in the Kronotsky (reserve). Its number per 1000000 ha is 25-30 specimen.
And the total population of wolves in Kamchatka numbers 2000.
In good years fox population sometimes numbers over 50-60 thousand.
There are four fox species on Kamchatka.
A very rare fur beast of prey is lynx. It came from the South.
One should mention one more representatives of beasts of prey - sable, which is rather numerous and widely distributed.
The sable is an animal of taiga. One often meets in coniferous and cedar woods and in the river valleys.
Its population is stable.

Also there are groups of small beasts of prey, such as, for example, stoat and weasel.
The stoat is to some extent a competitor of a sable and fox - they have the same food.
It lives predominantly in the woods, situated in the flood plains of rivers, sometimes goes to the mountains.
It is one of the game species. The weasel is often found everywhere, but its population is not numerous.
The beasts of prey, whose life is tightly connected with water, are rather common almost in all the water bodies.
This beasts of prey are river otter, sea-otter, and well spread acclimated american mink.

This is the river otter, which lives only in the fresh water, while a sea otter is a sea animal, which three centuries ago inhabited all the seashore of the Pacific ocean.
Nowadays the sea otter appears on the Comandor Isles, not often - on the Kuril Isles and on the Lopatka Cape.
Usually it dwells closely to rocky shores, where there are seaweed, sea urchins, crabs, shellfishes - its main food.
The major part of its life sea otter spends in water. It can't stand polluted water and leaves such water bodies at once.
By the beginning of the 20th century sea otter has almost disappeared. And in 1936 otter-hunting was banned.

One more representative of beasts of prey is the white bear. It comes from the North and one can easily enumerate all its comings: in 1919 - the Kronotsky peninsula, in 1931 - the Beryozovaya river (not far from the ocean, near Zhupanovo settlements), in 1975 - in the Olga Bay.
In all cases these comings took place in periods of ice-congestion in Kamchatsky and Kronotsky Bays.
The most numerous population in the peninsula is the population of Alpine hare.
They can be seen everywhere, but not out of the forest zone.

Among rodents one should mention the squirrel, which appeared in forests of Kamchatka approximately in 1920.
Nowadays it inhabits taiga, the valley of the Kamchatka river and the eastern seacoast.
Among small rodents there are different kinds of vole and lemmings.
In mountains between stones the tree-creeper and the black-headed marmot, which are noticeable for their special whistling.
Among the game species are musk rats and Canadian beavers, which live on the tributaries of the Kamchatka river and some other rivers.
The only one chiropter on Kamchatka is bat.
As for insectivorous, there are 5 species of shrew on Kamchatka peninsula. The reptiles and amphibians.

In Kamchatka one can meet a widely distributed representative of amphibians - the newt.
It dwells in small, well-warmed and full of vegetation water-bodies, and seldom - in forests (where it lives in a wet leaf-covering), situated within boundaries of such big lakes as, for example Kronotskoe, Kuril, Ozhibachie, Nerpichie and some others.

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